featuretools.dfs(entities=None, relationships=None, entityset=None, target_entity=None, cutoff_time=None, instance_ids=None, agg_primitives=None, trans_primitives=None, allowed_paths=None, max_depth=2, ignore_entities=None, ignore_variables=None, seed_features=None, drop_contains=None, drop_exact=None, where_primitives=None, max_features=-1, cutoff_time_in_index=False, save_progress=None, features_only=False, training_window=None, approximate=None, chunk_size=None, n_jobs=1, dask_kwargs=None, verbose=False)

Calculates a feature matrix and features given a dictionary of entities and a list of relationships.

  • entities (dict[str -> tuple(pd.DataFrame, str, str)]) – Dictionary of entities. Entries take the format {entity id -> (dataframe, id column, (time_column))}.
  • relationships (list[(str, str, str, str)]) – List of relationships between entities. List items are a tuple with the format (parent entity id, parent variable, child entity id, child variable).
  • entityset (EntitySet) – An already initialized entityset. Required if entities and relationships are not defined.
  • target_entity (str) – Entity id of entity on which to make predictions.
  • cutoff_time (pd.DataFrame or Datetime) – Specifies times at which to calculate each instance. Can either be a DataFrame with ‘instance_id’ and ‘time’ columns, a DataFrame with the name of the index variable in the target entity and a time column, a list of values, or a single value to calculate for all instances. If the dataframe has more than two columns, any additional columns will be added to the resulting feature matrix.
  • instance_ids (list) – List of instances on which to calculate features. Only used if cutoff_time is a single datetime.
  • agg_primitives (list[str or AggregationPrimitive], optional) –

    List of Aggregation Feature types to apply.

    Default: [“sum”, “std”, “max”, “skew”, “min”, “mean”, “count”, “percent_true”, “n_unique”, “mode”]
  • trans_primitives (list[str or TransformPrimitive], optional) –

    List of Transform Feature functions to apply.

    Default: [“day”, “year”, “month”, “weekday”, “haversine”, “num_words”, “num_characters”]
  • allowed_paths (list[list[str]]) – Allowed entity paths on which to make features.
  • max_depth (int) – Maximum allowed depth of features.
  • ignore_entities (list[str], optional) – List of entities to blacklist when creating features.
  • ignore_variables (dict[str -> list[str]], optional) – List of specific variables within each entity to blacklist when creating features.
  • seed_features (list[PrimitiveBase]) – List of manually defined features to use.
  • drop_contains (list[str], optional) – Drop features that contains these strings in name.
  • drop_exact (list[str], optional) – Drop features that exactly match these strings in name.
  • where_primitives (list[str or PrimitiveBase], optional) –

    List of Primitives names (or types) to apply with where clauses.

  • max_features (int, optional) – Cap the number of generated features to this number. If -1, no limit.
  • features_only (bool, optional) – If True, returns the list of features without calculating the feature matrix.
  • cutoff_time_in_index (bool) – If True, return a DataFrame with a MultiIndex where the second index is the cutoff time (first is instance id). DataFrame will be sorted by (time, instance_id).
  • training_window (Timedelta, optional) – Window defining how much older than the cutoff time data can be to be included when calculating the feature. If None, all older data is used.
  • approximate (Timedelta) – Bucket size to group instances with similar cutoff times by for features with costly calculations. For example, if bucket is 24 hours, all instances with cutoff times on the same day will use the same calculation for expensive features.
  • save_progress (str, optional) – Path to save intermediate computational results.
  • n_jobs (int, optional) – number of parallel processes to use when calculating feature matrix
  • chunk_size (int or float or None or "cutoff time", optionsal) – Number of rows of output feature matrix to calculate at time. If passed an integer greater than 0, will try to use that many rows per chunk. If passed a float value between 0 and 1 sets the chunk size to that percentage of all instances. If passed the string “cutoff time”, rows are split per cutoff time.
  • dask_kwargs (dict, optional) –

    Dictionary of keyword arguments to be passed when creating the dask client and scheduler. Even if n_jobs is not set, using dask_kwargs will enable multiprocessing. Main parameters:

    cluster (str or dask.distributed.LocalCluster):
    cluster or address of cluster to send tasks to. If unspecified, a cluster will be created.
    diagnostics port (int):
    port number to use for web dashboard. If left unspecified, web interface will not be enabled.

    Valid keyword arguments for LocalCluster will also be accepted.


from featuretools.primitives import Mean
# cutoff times per instance
entities = {
    "sessions" : (session_df, "id"),
    "transactions" : (transactions_df, "id", "transaction_time")
relationships = [("sessions", "id", "transactions", "session_id")]
feature_matrix, features = dfs(entities=entities,

features = dfs(entities=entities,